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Suction Release Devices

MAY 09, 2006

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff is working to develop strategies to reduce deaths and injuries from entrapment in the suction drains of swimming pools and spas. CPSC staff is currently participating in the development, refinement or harmonization of the following standards that address entrapment hazards:

  • ASTM International F2387-04, Standard Specification for Manufactured Safety Vacuum Release Systems (SVRS) for Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs
  • ASME/ANSI A112.19.17, Manufactured Safety Vacuum Release Systems (SVRS) for Residential and Commercial Swimming Pool, Spa, Hot Tub and Wading Pool Suction Systems
  • ASME/ANSI A112.19.8M Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances
  • BSR/IAF 7-200x Entrapment Avoidance Standard for Pool, Spa and Hot Tub Circulation Systems

To address entrapment hazards associated with pools, spas, and hot tubs, CPSC staff will continue to participate in the development of relevant voluntary safety standards such as those for safety vacuum release systems, field manufactured vent pipes, and suction outlet covers. In addition, staff will work with the various standards organizations on harmonizing standards that address entrapment hazards, with a goal of developing a comprehensive set of standards that address all known entrapment hazards. Staff will also work with national, state and local jurisdictions to adopt or strengthen swimming pool safety codes, and explore ways to increase consumer awareness of entrapment hazards.

Since 1990, CPSC has reports of 130 people who became entrapped on pool and spa drains or whose hair became entangled in the drain cover, resulting in 27 deaths.

Safety Guidelines: CPSC has developed Guidelines for Entrapment Hazards: Making Pools and Spas Safer (CPSC Pub. 363), to address entrapment issues associated with pools and spas. These guidelines have been referenced in the building codes of many states and local jurisdictions. Staff issued a revision of these guidelines in March 2005 to reflect new safety standards, consensus on entrapment avoidance strategies, and advances in technology.

Additional Information

Safety Alerts:

  • Children Drown and More are Injured from Hair Entrapment
  • Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpools

Voluntary Standard and Code Activities:

CPSC Staff Reports, Memoranda and Contracts:

Voluntary Standards Organizations

For further information concerning specific standards, please contact the relevant standards organization:

International Aquatic Foundation

The Association of Pool and Spa Professionals

ASTM International


Contact CPSC

Report an unsafe product