Federal law requires that infant swings comply with the infant swing standard and with additional requirements, including those of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA).
Manufacturers and importers of infant swings must certify in a Children's Product Certificate that the infant swings comply with the standard and the additional requirements after the infant swings have been tested for compliance at a CPSC-accepted, third party laboratory. These requirements are discussed below and reviewed in greater detail at www.cpsc.gov/BusinessEducation.
The infant swing standard covers products with a powered mechanism used for the purpose of providing a swinging or gliding seat in any direction relative to the frame (that is, front to back, side to side, arc, etc.) for an infant. An “infant swing” is defined as a swing that enables an infant in a seated position to swing or glide and is intended for use with infants from birth until the infant attempts to climb out of the swing (approximately 9 months). A “cradle swing,” which is also included in the infant swing standard, is a product intended for use by an infant lying flat to swing or glide and is intended for use with infants from birth until the infant begins to push up on their hands and knees (approximately 5 months). (ASTM F2088).
The standard seeks to minimize the risk of death and injuries associated with the use of swings, including those related to swings tipping over or collapsing, structural failures, and entanglement in the restraints or entrapment in leg holes.
The standard is published in the Code of Federal Regulations at: 16 CFR Part 1223. The standard incorporates by reference ASTM F2088 - 21, which details the specific requirements and descriptions of the tests for infant swings. ASTM F2088-21, the Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Infant Swings, can be purchased from ASTM International. You may also inspect a copy electronically at the ASTM Reading Library: https://www.astm.org/READINGLIBRARY/.
The standard has stringent requirements for the overall integrity and operation of the infant swing. The requirements address restraints, avoiding tip-overs, proper seat angles, structural integrity, electrical components, and unintentional folding.
Infant swings are subject to surface coating requirements, lead and phthalate content limits, third party testing and certification, registration cards, and tracking label requirements. These requirements are discussed below and at www.cpsc.gov/BusinessEducation:
- Surface Coating Limit: Infant swings must not be painted with paint that contains more than 90 ppm (0.009 percent) lead.
- Lead Content Limit: Infant swings must not contain greater than 100 ppm (0.01 percent) of total lead content in any accessible component part.
- Phthalate Content Limits: If an infant swing is marketed to facilitate sleep or contains a toy intended to be used and attached to the swing, then plasticized components of infant swings must not contain more than 0.1 percent of the following eight specified phthalates: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), or benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP).
- Testing and Certification: Infant swings, like all products that are designed or intended primarily for children 12 years of age or younger, must be tested by a CPSC-accepted lab for compliance with the infant swing standard and all other applicable children's product safety rules. Based on that testing, a domestic manufacturer (or importer) of infant swings must issue a Children's Product Certificate specifying each applicable rule and indicating that the product complies with those rules.
- Product and Outer Package Labeling Requirements: Durable infant or toddler products, such as infant swings must be permanently marked with specific labeling information, including tracking labels, on the product and on the packaging. In addition, durable infant or toddler products are required to have additional product markings and a product registration card attached to the product. This chart summarizes the specific labeling and registration requirements that durable infant and toddler products must meet.
For more information on the requirements for infant swings, contact the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission:
- Small Business Ombudsman (for general assistance understanding and complying with CPSC regulations): e-mail: Please use our Contact Form, which is the best way to get a fast response; telephone: (888) 531-9070.
To purchase copies of ASTM F2088 - 20, contact ASTM International at: www.astm.org or via telephone: (610) 832-9585. You may also inspect a copy electronically at the ASTM Reading Library: https://www.astm.org/READINGLIBRARY/